SAFI FAYE (1943- )
Senegal
From Twenty-Five Black African Filmmakers: A Critical Study, with Filmography and Bio-Bibliography
by FRANCOISE PFAFF
Greenwood Press, 1988
Reprinted by permission from Greenwood Press
 


    Presently the only active independent female Black African-born filmmaker, Safi Faye was born in Dakar in 1943. Her parents come from Fad'jal, a small village located about 100 kilometers south of Dakar. Faye is of Serer origin.


    This ethnic group, which constitutes about 20 percent of the Senegalese population, lives primarily in the Thiès and Sine-Saloum regions. Mainly sedentary farmers tending peanut crops, the Serers have traditionally remained strongly attached to their cultural heritage and lived somewhat isolated from other ethnic groups. Yet, through recent migrations to Dakar and other Senegalese cities, some Serers are now gradually merging into the prevailing Wolof culture and urban lifestyle.

    Born into the household of a polygamous village chief and businessman, Faye is the second of her mother's seven children and has thirteen half brothers and sisters as well. Although Faye's mother is illiterate, both parents expected their sons and daughters to be well educated. Many of their children are now engaged in such fields as medicine and teaching. However, Faye recalls that she and her siblings were given more freedom, as they were growing up, than other Senegalese youth. Benefitting from the care, warmth, and solidarity of an extended family and nurtured by the tales of a rich oral tradition, the childhood of the Senegalese cinéaste was extremely happy. To this day, she has maintained close ties with her relatives whom she affectionately portrayed in her film Kaddu beykat (Peasant Letter).

    After primary school, Faye attended the Rufisque normal school and, at the precocious age of nineteen, obtained her teacher's certificate. ln 1963 she started working for the Dakar school system, where she was to remain for six years. She liked teaching, and her stay in Senegal’s
capital enabled her to enjoy its varied cultural events. Among these was the 1966 Dakar Festival of Negro Art, for which she was selected to serve as an official hostess and guide to foreign guests. During this festival she met Jean Rouch, the noted French ethnologist and filmmaker who, apparently, encouraged her serious interest in cinema, particularly ethnographic filmmaking. However, it was as an actress that she first entered the realm of cinema. Rouch chose her, along with Damouré Zira Lam, Ibrahima Dia, and Mustapha Alassane, to play in Petit à petit ou Les Lettres persanes 1968 (Little by Little or the 1968 Persian Letters), whose title alludes to Montesquieu's Persian Letters about the coming of two Persians to Paris and their ironic comments concerning their new lifestyle. With an approach somewhat similar to that of the eighteenth-century French philosopher, Rouch's loosely structured film records the discoveries of a young man from Niger faced with contemporary Parisian life. The shooting of this film enabled Faye to leave Senegal temporarily and travel to Paris, Switzerland, the Ivory Coast, and Niger. More significantly, however, Petit à petit ou Les Lettres persanes 1968 allowed her to become acquainted with Rouch's technique of cinéma-vérité (an unobtrusive camera eye, spontaneous shooting, improvised nonprofessional acting, and mostly single takes), which was to influence her greatly in the course of her future career as a filmmaker. Yet, in retrospect, Safi Faye dislikes this film, questions its significance, and expresses severe criticism as to her own performance in it (Cinémaction, n. 17, 1982, pp. 63-64). After Petit à petit ou Les Lettres persanes 1968, Safi Faye returned to Dakar, where she resumed her teaching, but her brief experience in the film world had a lingering effect on her mind. A year later she abandoned her teaching activities and went to Paris, where she registered at the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes to study ethnology and at the Louis Lumière Film School in 1972. For several years, Faye led the life of a student, also engaging in modelling and film dubbing in order to support herself. This was a time of hard work and cultural estrangement during which she occasionally relaxed to the tunes of European pop singers and those of Wilson Pickett and Aretha Franklin. ln 1972, still a film student, she used her meager savings to make her first film, La Passante (The Passerby). The following year, after participating with other fellow students of the Louis Lumière Film School in the making of a collective film, Revanche (Revenge), she spent her summer at home, conducting research on Serer religions. She began shooting her first feature length docudrama, Kaddu beykat, with a crew of three, including a French cameraman and her uncle, who worked briefly as a soundman. This film, made on a shoestring budget of $20,000 with the money she earned from La Passante and financial support from the French Ministry of Cooperation, was completed in 1974 at about the time she graduated from the Louis Lumière Film School. Subsequently, in 1975, Safi Faye pursued her studies in ethnology at the Sorbonne. That same year, Kaddu beykat (which she had started in 1972) was released and well received by most critics. It was presented at the Cannes Film Festival and won an award at the Festival International du Film de l'Ensemble Francophone (FIFEF) held in Geneva. ln 1975-1976 this film obtained the Georges Sadoul Prize in France and a special award at the Fifth Pan-African Film Festival of Ouagadougou (FESPACO) in Burkina Faso, and won the International Film Critics Award at the Berlin Film Festival (FIPRESCI). Two years later (1978) Kaddu beykat was to be shown in the retrospective of Senegalese films presented at the New York Museum of Modem Art. Among other film events, the motion picture was to be incIuded in the Racines Noires (Black Roots) film festival held in Paris from 18 March to 8 April 1985 and in 1986 in an "African Mini-Series" at the Biograph, a commercial movie theater located in Washington, D.C. Also in 1976, Safi Faye gave birth to a daughter, Zeiba. Faye received a diploma in ethnology from the Sorbonne in 1977 and was invited to serve as one of the official judges of FIFEF. Involved in both filmmaking and academic pursuits, she received a Ph.D. in ethnology from the University of Paris VII in 1979, and her research on the Serer peasantry culminated in two new films: Fad'jal (Come and Work) and Goob na nu (The Harvest is ln). The $70,000 Fad'jal, produced by Safi Faye, the French Ministry of Cooperation, and ZDF (a German television station), was featured at the 1979 Cannes Film  Festival and was to receive an award at the 1980 Carthage Film Festival. During the academic year 1979-1980, Faye joined the faculty of the Free University of Berlin as a guest lecturer and studied video production in Berlin, during which time she shot 3 ans 5 mois (3 Years 5 Months, filmed in 1979 and edited in 1983), a video film produced by a German cultural association, Deutsche Akademische Austansch Dienst (also known as DAAD). ln Germany she became interested in the fate of expatriate African students, about whom she made the $30,000 budget Man Sa Yay (I, Your Mother, 1980), co-produced with ZDF. The year 1981 saw the release of Les Ames au soleil (Souls under the Sun), a $50,000 documentary commissioned by the United Nations. A year later, Faye completed Selbé et tant d'autres (Selbe and So Many Others), co-produced by UNICEF and Faust Films Production (Munich). The film won a special prize at the 1983 Leipzig Festival (Germany).


ln November 1982, along with such African filmmakers as Kwah Ansah, OIa Balogun, and Haile Gerima , Safi Faye participated in symposia on African cinema during the annual African Studies Association (ASA) Conference held in Washington, D.C. At that conference she discussed her sociopolitical commitment as an independent African director as follows: "Independent African filmmakers are anxious to fight against all forms of foreign domination. ln dealing with social conditions, they stress the economic aspect of life and focus on problems which are directly affecting our people." Describing her filmmaking techniques, the Senegalese cinéaste added:


  1. I do not work single-handedly but rather through and with other people. I go to talk to the farmers in their village, we discuss their problems and I take notes. Even though I may write a script for my films, I basically leave the peasants free to express themselves in front of a camera and I listen. My films are collective works in which everybody takes an active part .... I have never made a fiction film. I am mainly interested in film as a research tool.

Favoring the direct portrayal of real characters and true events, Faye focuses her lenses in 1984 on various ethnic restaurants located in Paris. This project resulted in Ambassades nourricières (Culinary Embassies), produced by INA (Institut National de l'Audiovisuel) and FR3, a French television station. In 1984, as well, Faye travelled to India and Japan to take part in film festivals. The following year she was again hired by FR3 to make a ten-minute documentary film on Racines Noires (Black Roots), a multimedia cultural festival held in Paris and dedicated to the cinema, poetry, and painting of Africa and the Black Diaspora. Also in 1985, Safi Faye attended a number of film events. She served as one of the official judges at the Tenth International Film Festival of India (3-17 January 1985) held in New Delhi, and was invited to participate in the Second Festival Internacional de Cinema, TV e Video de Rio de Janeiro (21 November-1 December 1985) in Brazil, where she presented her film Kaddu beykat.


Although in 1963 a Cameroonian journalist by the name of Thérèse Sita Bella distinguished herself by making a half-hour documentary entitled Tam Tam à Paris (African Drums in Paris), and in spite of playwright Efua Sutherland's brief try at cinema with Araba: The Village Story, a docudrama produced by ABC and shot in Ghana in 1967, Black African cinema still remains a male-dominated sphere. Although a few African women are engaged in television productions, Safi Faye is today the only independent African-born woman director of Black African filmmaking. Asked how she felt about this, Faye stated:


  1. I do not make any difference between male and female African directors. My problems are the same as those faced by my male counterparts. They struggle to make films and so do I. My films are not primarily focusing on women. As a filmmaker I am equally concerned with the fate of all Senegalese peasants, both men and women. (ASA Conference, 1982).


A strong-minded and outspoken yet amiable woman possessing a keen sense of humor, Safi Faye is presently living in Paris, where she divides her time between raising her daughter and working assiduously on a number of film projects. ln the near future, the Senegalese director plans to undertake the making of her first fiction film, entitled Negu Jaargon (Cobweb), which will be based on a $1 million budget.


MAJOR THEMES


    Although touching on one of Faye's familiar themes, exile, La Passante diverges considerably from her other films. It was shot by the American cameraman Kal Muller and interpreted by Faye, the Cameroonian actor and filmmaker Daniel Kamwa, and Philippe Luzuy. ln La Passante Safi Faye plays the role of a young African woman living in France. Walking down the streets of Paris, she draws the attention, respectively, of a French and an African man. The film in essence expresses the two men's perception of the young woman. On one hand, the European suitor dreams of taking her to visit the city and dine while discussing intellectual matters, after which he would take her, to bed. On the other hand, the African admirer imagines that they would go to his room and dance lasciviously. Then, nostalgic for the spices and flavors of his native land, he would ask her to prepare an African dish. ln this film no words are spoken, and only music and three lines of poetry are recorded on its soundtrack. Even though the depth of La Passante is debatable, its good-humored and light-hearted tone and sexual inferences were at the time in sharp contrast with the serious and somewhat puritanical works of most of Safi Faye's male counterparts. Faye says of her film:


The female protagonist of La Passante is a foreigner who arouses a certain curiosity among the people of the country in which she is presently residing. She lives in a country where she is neither integrated nor assimilated. She is in Europe but her thoughts are in Africa. I am just like her, I define myself as a "passerby." (Faye to author, Paris, Winter 1985).


La Passante was but a trial run. So was Revanche, a short film which narrates the story of a madman who wants to climb the Pont Neuf, one of Paris' oldest bridges. Faye' s first major work, in which she describes the daily life of villagers, is Kaddu beykat, dedicated to her own grandfather, who died a few days after the shooting of the film was completed. Kaddu beykat (Wolof for "The Voice of the Peasant") was literally meant to "give a voice" to Senegalese peasants so that they might debate among themselves as well as delineate to others the socioeconomic and political facets of their agricultural problems. Purposely shot at a slow pace to reflect the lyrical intimacy of man and nature as well as the ritualistic aspect of farming, the film condemns the precariousness of rural life based on the whims of peanut monoculture. Introduced in the eighteenth century under French colonialism, such monoculture is still largely practiced in Senegal, where farmers are subject to dramatic fluctuations in the price of peanuts on the world market. Kaddu beykat is a soberly poetic yet politically effective black and white fictionalized documentary which denounces what Faye sees as the inadequate measures taken by her government to cure the ills of the Senegalese peasantry. About the political content of such a film as Kaddu beykat (which has been banned in Senegal), Faye stresses:


It is all too easy and convenient to place the blame for Africa's present ills uniquely on the past or on outside forces .... lt is without a doubt more important to explore the continent's present problems in terms of the policies of those in power, for putting the spotlight exclusively on extraneous forces is an alibi. (The Guardian, July 9, 1980, p. 7).


Shot in three weeks during the busy rainy season, Faye's unadorned film, which through her own voice-over takes the structural form of a letter to a friend, is interpreted by nonprofessional actors, who were given much freedom to play their own roles. Her camera witnesses village life from dawn to dusk: its awakening, collective work on dusty fields, domestic tasks, family meals, children's games, work songs, the timeless custom of courting and marriage, traditional

medicine practices, and the daily evening meetings of eIders under the "palaver tree," where they regretfully recall a bountiful past while expressing fears in the face of a most uncertain future. Here the filmmaker depicts such life not merely as a detached observer but as an intrinsic part of her society. Although Safi Faye shows mainly collective concerns, she also takes the time to narrate an individual story, that of a young villager who is forced to migrate temporarily to Dakar (where he faces the ruthless exploitation of some of Senegal' s new middle class) to work at odd jobs to purchase his fiancée' s dowry. The film ends on a freeze frame of the dignified face of an old man (Faye's own grandfather) who questions the audience with a forceful look as Faye, through voice-over, closes her work on a solemn note with the brief yet powerful statement: "This is the voice of the peasant--Kaddu beykat. " ln this manner the filmmaker lends her film larger significance, for as she told film critic Paulin S. Vieyra: "This story ... could take place in any other African country as well; I shot it in Senegal because, as a Senegalese, it was easier for me to do it there" (Le Cinéma africain, 1975, p. 190).


Fad'jal (which bears the name of Faye's Serer village) provides us with an analysis of the sociocultural realities of her rural community. Using in her film the quote by the well-known Malian philosopher Hampaté Ba, according to which "in Africa, whenever an old man dies, it is as though a library has burnt down," Faye's goal here is to show how collective memory is transmitted by the eIders to the younger generations through the oral tradition. Again, with a camera perfectly integrated in the environment she chooses to describe, Faye focuses on the loss of old values as she depicts the changes occurring within the Senegalese peasantry due to government reforms and the migration of farmers to urban centers and foreign countries. With the exception of some staged scenes like the grandfather's narration to the village children, the filmmaker successfully uses direct cinema as a privileged means of expression.


Kaddu beykat and Fad'jal exemplify Safi Faye's ethnographic and socioanthropological approach to film and indicate the overall direction of her subsequent works. Goob na nu is, thus, a documentary that concerns itself with agricultural issues, and Man Sa Yay, structurally reminiscent of Kaddu beykat, is based on an exchange of letters between an exiled Senegalese student and his mother at home. With Man Sa Yay, Faye also iIIustrates the isolation of guest workers in a compelling film where "West Berlin itself becomes an anonymous mass of glass and concrete" (West Africa, 16 August 1982, p. 2112). 3 ans 5 mois, which focuses on Faye's own daughter, shows the ease with which young children adapt to foreign culture. Les Ames au soleil stresses the problems related to drought, health, and development and how they affect women and children in remote rural areas. Selbé et tant d'autres describes the fate of village women left behind after men have migrated to urban centers in search of work to support their families. Ambassades nourricières is an original attempt to penetrate specific cultures through their culinary rites. It contains interviews of African, Armenian, Asiatic, Hungarian, Italian, and Latin American restaurant owners who have established themselves in Paris. These interviews provide specific insights into their past historical, sociocultural, and political milieu as well as topics concerning emigration and acculturation.


SURVEY OF CRITICISM


Asked once for whom she made such a film as Fad'jal, Safi Faye responded: "First of all, for Africa, for African people--those who know what Africa is and those who don't  know although they think they do. And then for the rest" (Framework, Fall 1969, p. 17).

Unfortunately, Faye's films, which are often severely critical of Senegal's policies, have not yet been allowed for official public viewing in that country. As a consequence, her films have been principally viewed by non-African audiences and, with but a few exceptions, have been reviewed only by Western critics. Louis Marcorelles, for instance, praises Faye's affectionate but precise consideration of village life in Kaddu beykat (Le Monde, 13 December 1975, p. 34), while

Jacques Grant credits her for avoiding the pitfalls of exoticism (Cinéma 77, January 1977, p. 93). Ali Kheury N'Daw likes the film's introspective qualities, lucidity, and sensitivity (Le Soleil, 12 April 1977, entertainment section). The African-American film critic Clyde Taylor finds this work to be


  1. a disarming, satisfying film. Its story is familiar in the new, independent African cinema, but it is told with a serene, authoritative touch that made me think something new was being brought to African visual art. (The Black Collegian, May-June 1979, p. 95).


   After having uttered some reservations concerning the technical quality of Kaddu beykat's pictures, Christian Bosséno enthusiastically writes:


  1. The first feature length film of the young woman director Safi Faye is exemplary. It discusses with sensitivity, simplicity and effectiveness the major problem of Third World economy subjected to the hazards of monoculture .... the film calls for an awareness of and a resistance against an economic system which is aberrant for the future of the country. Revue du Cinéma, Image et Son, October 1977, p. 157).


ln Variety, Holl foresees that Kaddu beykat "will draw the attention on the fest circuit and elsewhere as a prominent helmer." He describes this film as "a fiction docu" which "gives more than just facts." The reviewer adds:


Faye's quiet approach to her subject in an idyllic, meditative manner commands respect and attention. Camera angles are set at a convenient distance from the action and the rest follows without show or emphasis. The graphic account of a woman's sickness, the witchdoctor treatments and cleansing rituals in soft shadows, underscores a compassionate individual's pleading for traditional ways in a changing, neo-colonial world. (Variety,14 July 1976, p. 25).


Holl's views are confirmed by Janick Arbois, who urges French audiences to see this film if they want to view Africa with the heart and the eyes of an African woman (Télérama, 200ctober 1976, p. 87).

Termed "a visual tale" (Des femmes en Mouvement, 4 April 1980, p. 6) by some, Fad'jal's construction, seen as a mixture of documentary genre and historical re-creation, is not as convincing for others (Positif, July-August 1979, p. 55), although all critics agree on the originality of its approach. Here, in Marcel Martin's words, Safi Faye "advantageously combines an ethnographic and social perspective" (Ecran 79, 15 July 1979, p. 22). Deploring its lack of "narrative thread," Mosk finds the film repetitive and "more ritualistic than clarifying," concluding, however, that Fad'jal "does give a fine surface picture of village life" (Variety, 6 June 1979, p. 22).

With the exception of Mario Relich' s review of Man Sa Yay as a "compelling film" in spite of some "contrived" scenes (West Africa, 16 August 1982, p. 2112) and of Raphael Bassan's commendation of Ambassades nourricières (Afrique-Asie, 31 December 1985, p. 129), comparatively few writings have been devoted to Faye's other films. As reflected in reviews of her films, Safi Faye's international reputation is due primarily to Kaddu beykat and Fad'jal. Even though both films have been criticized sporadically for some technical deficiencies and their stylistic wavering between documentary and fiction, most observers agree that they unmistakably represent a most significant breakthrough in the area of African ethnographic filmmaking.


FILMOGRAPHY


La Passante (The Passerby), 16 mm, color, 10 min., 1972.

Revanche (Revenge), 16 mm, black and white, 15 min., 1973.

Kaddu beykat (Peasant Letter), 16 mm, black and white, 95 min., 1975.

Fad'jal (Come and Work), 16 mm, col or, 108 min., 1979.

Goob na nu (The Harvest is In), 16 mm, color, 30 min., 1979.

3 Ans 5 mois (3 Years 5 Months), videofilm, color, 30 min., 1979-1983.

Man Sa Yay (1, Your Mother), 16 mm, col or, 60 min., 1980.

Les Ames au soleil (Souls under the Sun), 16 mm, color, 27 min., 1981.

Selbé et tant d'autres (Selbe and So Many Others), 16 mm, col or, 30 min., 1982.

Ambassades nourricières (Culinary Embassies), 16 mm, color, 58 min., 1984.


BIBLIOGRAPHY


Interviews of Safi Faye


Bernard, Jean. "Safi Faye comme elle se dit." Afrique Nouvelle, n. 1372, 15 October 1975, pp. 17-18.

Eichenberger, P. "Safi Faye-une africaine derrière la caméra." Unir Cinéma. n. 69, October-November 1976, pp. 1-2 (supplement).

Haffner, Pierre. "Jean Rouch jugé par six cinéastes d'Afrique noire." Cinémaction, n. 17, 1982, pp. 62-76.

Mangin, Marc. "J'aime filmer sur un rythme africain." Droit et Liberté, n. 389, March 1980, pp. 35-36.

Martin, Angela. "Four Filmmakers from West Africa." Framework, n. II, Fall 1969, pp. 16-21.

Maupin, Françoise. "Entretien avec Safi Faye." La Revue du Cinéma, Image et Son, n. 303, February 1976, pp. 76-80.

Ruelle, Catherine. "Faye Safi." L'Afrique Littéraire et Artistique, n. 49, 3rd Quarter 1978, pp. 63-65.

Traoré, Moussa. "La Passion selon Safi Faye." Bingo, n. 319, August 1979, pp. 28-29.

Vasudev, Aruna. "When the Festival Is Over, Everyone Returns to His Corner." Festival News (Tenth International Festival of India), n. 13, 15 January 1985, pp. 1-3.

Welsh, Henry. "Entretien avec Safi Faye." Jeune Cinéma, n. 99, December 1976- January 1977, pp. 9-12.


Film Reviews and Studies of Safi Faye


Arbois, Janick. "Lettre paysanne." Télérama, n. 1397,20 October 1976, p. 87.

Bachy, Victor. "Festivals et rencontres: les Journées Cinématographiques de Carthage 1980." Revue Belge du Cinéma, n. 20, 1981, pp. 35-36.

Bassan, Raphael. "Quand nourriture rime avec culture." Afrique-Asie, n. 338, 31 December 1985, p. 129.

Beye, Ben Diogaye. "Safi Faye, vedette du film Petit à petit ou les Lettres persanes 1968." Bingo, n. 192, January 1969, pp. 26-27.

______. "Après le Festival de Royan, ûne réelle dialectique dans le dialogue des cultures." Cinéma 77, n. 221, May 1977, pp. 64-68.

Binet, Jacques. "Cinéma africain." Afrique Contemporaine, n. 83, January-February 1976, pp. 27-30.

Bosséno, Christian. "Lettre paysanne." Revue du Cinéma, Image et Son, n. 320-321, October 1977, pp. 157-58.

______. "Paysans." Cinémaction, special issue, 1982, pp. 188-195.

Courant, Gérard. "Fad'jal." Cinéma 79, n. 247-248, July-August 1979, p. 27.

"Fad'jal." Le Film Français, n. 1768, 4 May 1979; p. 23.

Ghali, Noureddine. "Festival international du film de l'ensemble francophone." Cinéma 76, n. 205, January 1976, pp. 24-25.

Grant, Jacques. "Lettre paysanne, carnet de notes pour la paysannerie africaine." Cinéma 77, n. 217, January 1977, pp. 93-94.

Haffner, Pierre. "Sénégal." Cinémaction, special issue, 1982, pp. 157-160.

Hoberman, J. "lnside Senegal." Village Voice, 6 February 1978, pp. 42, 48.

Holi. "Kaddu beykat." Variety, 14 July 1976, p. 25.

Kettelhack, Angelika. "Kaddu beykat." Frauen und Film, n. 9, October 1976, p. 57.

Marcorelles, Louis. "Le Prix Georges Sadoul 1975-1' Afrique et le Brésil au palmarès." Le Monde, 13 December 1975, p. 34.

Martin, Marcel. "Fad'jal." Ecran 79, n. 82, 15 July 1979, p. 22.

Moustapha, Mahama Baba. "Lettre paysanne de Safi Faye." Cinémarabe, n. 6, March-April 1977, p. 36.

Mosk. "Fadjal." Variety, 6 June 1979, p. 22.

N'Daw, Ali Kheury. "Des Paysans bien de chez nous." Le Soleil, 12 April 1977, entertainment section.

P., J-L. "Lettre paysanne." Positif, n. 188, December 1976, p. 72.

Paranagua, Paulo-Antonio. "Fad'jal de Safi Faye (Sénégal)." Positif, n. 220-221, July-August 1979, p. 55.

"La Passante religieuse." Jeune Afrique, n. 607, 26 August 1972, pp. 60-61.

"Les Pasionarias n'étaient pas au rendez-vous." Jeune Afrique, n. 792, 12 March 1976, p.56.

Relich, Mario. "ChronicIe of a Student." West Africa, n. 3393, 16 August 1982, p. 2112.

"Safi Faye: Profile of a Filmmaker." Playback-A Family Bulletin on Audiovisual Matters, n. 3, 1981, pp. 6-7.

Schissel, Howard. "Africa on Film: The First Feminine View." The Guardian, 9 July 1980, p. 7.

Sylviane and Marie-Aude. "Un Conte visuel qui, à travers des images en 'écho, transmet l'histoire d'un village." Des Femmes en Mouvement, n. 22-23,4 April 1980, p.6.

Taylor, Clyde. "The Screen Scene. " The Black Collegian, vol. 9, n. 5, May-June 1979, pp.94-96.

Vaugeois, Gérard. "Lettre paysanne." Ecran 76, n. 53, 15 December 1976, p. 66.

Vieyra, Paulin Soumanou. Le Cinéma africain. Paris: Présence Africaine, 1975.

______. Le Cinéma au Sénégal. Brussels: OCIC/L'Harmattan, 1983.